How to fix "PEM_read_bio:no start line error" nginx error

If nginx/OpenSSL gives you this error: ```bash [emerg]: SSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_file("/etc/ssl/cert.pem") failed (SSL: error:0906D06C:PEM routines:PEM_read_bio:no start line error:140B0009:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_use_PrivateKey_file:PEM lib) configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test failed ``` It probably means your private key needs to be added to the certificate file (/etc/ssl/cert.pem). The file will then contain the following: ```bash -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- ... -----END CERTIFICATE----- -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- ... -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY----- ``` Remember to test your configuration and verify that nginx can read your certificate before restarting the server: ```bash sudo /usr/sbin/nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf -t the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful ``` If nginx asks you for a PEM password (Enter PEM pass phrase), strip out the password from the private key: ```bash openssl rsa -in jebus.key -out jebus-stripped.key ```